Foramen Rotundum

in Canal

Structure



The foramen rotundum is one of the several circular apertures (the foramina) located in the base of the skull, in the anterior and medial part of the sphenoid bone.



The maxillary nerve passes through and exits the skull via the pterygopalatine fossa and the foramen rotundum.



The mean area of the foramen/foramina rotundum is not considerable, which may suggest that it/they play(s) a minor role in the dynamics of blood circulation in the venous system of the head.



Morphology and morphometry



The foramen rotundum evolves in shape throughout the fetal period, and from birth to adolescence. It achieves a perfect ring-shaped formation in the fetus after the 4th fetal month. It is mostly oval-shaped in the fetal period, and round-shaped after birth (generally speaking). After birth, the rotundum is about 2.5 mm and in 15- to 17-year olds about 3 mm in length. The average diameter of the foramen rotundum in adults is 3.55 mm. This was according to a developmental study published in The Hokkaido Journal of Medical Science on the foramen ovale, the foramen spinosum and the foramen rotundum, and according to a study about the postnatal enlargement of the foramina rotundum, ovale and spinosum and their topographical changes published in the Anatomischer Anzeiger.



Additional images



Sphenoid bone. Upper and posterior surfaces. |



Horizontal section of nasal and orbital cavities.



Medial wall of left orbit.



See also



Foramina of skull



Foramen ovale



References



^ Reymond J, Charuta A, Wysocki J (2005). "The morphology and morphometry of the foramina of the greater wing of the human sphenoid bone". Folia Morphologica 64 (3): 18893. PMID 16228954. 



^ Yanagi S (1987). "Developmental studies on the foramen rotundum, foramen ovale and foramen spinosum of the human sphenoid bone". The Hokkaido Journal of Medical Science 62 (3): 48596. PMID 3610040. 



^ Lang J, Maier R, Schafhauser O (1984). "Postnatal enlargement of the foramina rotundum, ovale et spinosum and their topographical changes". Anatomischer Anzeiger 156 (5): 35187. PMID 6486466. 



External links



SUNY Labs 22:os-0905



cranialnerves at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) (V)



Foramen+rotundum at eMedicine Dictionary



Superior view of the base of the skull at winona.edu



v d e



Bones of head and neck: the neurocranium of the skull (TA A02.1.01-07, GA 2.129-155)



Occipital



Squama



external (Inion/External occipital protuberance, Nuchal lines)  planes (Occipital, Nuchal)  internal (Cruciform eminence, Internal occipital protuberance, Sagittal sulcus, Internal occipital crest)



Lateral parts



Condyle (Condyloid fossa, Condylar canal)  Hypoglossal canal  jugular (Jugular process, Jugular tubercle)



Basilar part



Pharyngeal tubercle



Other



Foramen magnum (Basion, Opisthion)



Parietal



Parietal eminence  Temporal line  Parietal foramen



Frontal



Squama



Frontal suture  Frontal eminence  external (Superciliary arches, Glabella)  foramina (Supraorbital, Cecum)  Zygomatic process  internal (Sagittal sulcus, Frontal crest)



Orbital part



Ethmoidal notch  Lacrimal fossa  Trochlear fovea  Frontal sinus  Frontonasal duct



Temporal



Squama



Articular tubercle  Suprameatal triangle  Mandibular fossa  Petrotympanic fissure  Zygomatic process



Mastoid part



Mastoid foramen  Mastoid process (Mastoid cells)  Mastoid notch  Occipital groove  Sigmoid sulcus  Mastoid antrum (Aditus)



Petrous part



Carotid canal  Facial canal (Hiatus)  Internal auditory meatus  Cochlear aqueduct  Stylomastoid foramen



fossae (Subarcuate fossa, Jugular fossa)  canaliculi (Inferior tympanic, Mastoid)  Styloid process  Petrosquamous suture



(note: ossicles in petrous part, but not part of temporal bone)



Tympanic part



Suprameatal spine



Sphenoid



Surfaces



Superior surface: Sella turcica (Dorsum sellae, Tuberculum sellae, Hypophysial fossa, Posterior clinoid processes)  Ethmoidal spine  Chiasmatic groove  Middle clinoid process  Petrosal process  Clivus



Lateral surface: Carotid groove  Sphenoidal lingula



Anterior surface: Sphenoidal sinuses



Great wings



foramina (Rotundum, Ovale, Vesalii, Spinosum)  Spine  Infratemporal crest  Sulcus for auditory tube



Small wings



Superior orbital fissure  Anterior clinoid process  Optic canal



Pterygoid



processes



fossae (Pterygoid, Scaphoid)  pterygoid plates (Lateral, Medial)  Pterygoid canal  Hamulus



Other



Body  Sphenoidal conchae



Ethmoid



Plates



Cribriform plate (Crista galli, Olfactory foramina)  Perpendicular plate



Surfaces



Lateral surface Orbital lamina  Uncinate process



Medial surface Superior nasal concha  Superior meatus  Middle nasal concha  Middle meatus



Labyrinth



Ethmoid sinus  ethmoidal foramina (Posterior, Anterior)



v d e



Bones of head and neck: Foramina of the skull (and canals, fissures, meati, and hiati) (TA A02.1.00.053-097, GA 2.178-199)



Anterior cranial fossa



to Orbit: ethmoidal foramina (anterior, posterior)



to Nasal cavity: olfactory foramina (CN-I)  foramen cecum



Middle cranial fossa



to Orbit: optic canal (CN-II)  superior orbital fissure (CN-III,IV,V1,VI)



to Pterygopalatine fossa: foramen rotundum (CN-V2)  pterygoid canal



to Infratemporal fossa: foramen ovale (CN-V3)  foramen spinosum/carotid canal



other: foramen lacerum  hiatus for greater petrosal nerve  hiatus for lesser petrosal nerve  sphenoidal emissary foramen



Posterior cranial fossa



internal auditory meatus/facial canal/stylomastoid foramen (CN-VII,VIII)  jugular foramen (CN-IX,X,XI)  foramen magnum (CN-XI)  hypoglossal canal (CN-XII)  condylar canal  mastoid foramen



Orbit



to Nasal cavity: nasolacrimal canal



to Face: supraorbital (notch, foramen)  infraorbital (foramen, groove)  zygomatic foramen (-facial, -temporal)



to Pterygopalatine fossa: inferior orbital fissure



Pterygopalatine fossa



to Nasal cavity: sphenopalatine foramen



to Oral cavity: greater palatine canal/greater palatine foramen  lesser palatine canals/lesser palatine foramina



to Infratemporal fossa: pterygomaxillary fissure



to Nasopharynx: palatovaginal canal



Nasal cavity



to Oral cavity: incisive canals  incisive foramen



Other



external acoustic meatus  mandibular foramen  mental foramen  parietal foramen  petrotympanic fissure  semilunar hiatus



Categories: Foramina of the skullHidden categories: Wikipedia articles incorporating text from public domain editions of Gray's Anatomy

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Foramen Rotundum

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This article was published on 2010/10/09